The abstract acts as the second major section of the document and typically begins on the second page of the paper. It follows directly after the title page and precedes the main body of the paper. Unlike in other paragraphs in the paper, the first line of the abstract should not be indented five spaces from the left margin.
Like the rest of the paper, the pages of the abstract should be double-spaced and typed in Times New Roman, 12 pt. While the running head is flush with the upper left-hand corner of every page, the page number is flush with the upper right-hand corner of every page.
Note that all letters of the running head should be capitalized and should not exceed 50 characters, including punctuation, letters, and spaces.
The title of the abstract is centered at the top of the page; there is no extra space between the title and the paragraph. Avoid formatting the title with bold, italics, underlining, or quotation marks, or mislabeling the abstract with the title of the research paper. When writing the abstract, note that the APA recommends using two spaces after sentences that end in a period; however, sentences that end in other punctuation marks may be followed by a single space.
Additionally, the APA recommends using the active voice and past tense in the abstract, but the present tense may be used to describe conclusions and implications. Acronyms or abbreviated words should be defined in the abstract. The list of keywords should follow after the abstract paragraph, and the word Keywords should be italicized, indented five spaces from the left margin, and followed by a colon.
There is no period at the end of the list of keywords. Here is a sample to help you format the abstract of your paper in APA style. For additional information about formatting the abstract in APA, see also:. Dear Past Authors Contribute Feedback. Placement The abstract acts as the second major section of the document and typically begins on the second page of the paper.
General Format How should the abstract page be formatted? How should the list of keywords be formatted? Suggest an edit to this page? Please share your feedback, both favorable and unfavorable. Please select the purpose of your message. This field is for validation purposes and should be left unchanged.An abstract summarizes, usually in one paragraph of words or less, the major aspects of the entire paper in a prescribed sequence that includes: 1 the overall purpose of the study and the research problem s you investigated; 2 the basic design of the study; 3 major findings or trends found as a result of your analysis; and, 4 a brief summary of your interpretations and conclusions.
Writing an Abstract. The Writing Center. Clarion University, Sometimes your professor will ask you to include an abstract, or general summary of your work, with your research paper.
Organizing Your Social Sciences Research Paper
The abstract allows you to elaborate upon each major aspect of the paper and helps readers decide whether they want to read the rest of the paper.
Therefore, enough key information [e. How do you know when you have enough information in your abstract? A simple rule-of-thumb is to imagine that you are another researcher doing a similar study. Then ask yourself: if your abstract was the only part of the paper you could access, would you be happy with the amount of information presented there? Does it tell the whole story about your study?
If the answer is "no" then the abstract likely needs to be revised. How to Write a Research Abstract. Office of Undergraduate Research. University of Kentucky; Staiger, David L. Abstracts and the Writing of Abstracts. Types of Abstracts. To begin, you need to determine which type of abstract you should include with your paper. There are four general types.
The researcher evaluates the paper and often compares it with other works on the same subject. Critical abstracts are generally words in length due to the additional interpretive commentary. These types of abstracts are used infrequently. Descriptive Abstract A descriptive abstract indicates the type of information found in the work.
It makes no judgments about the work, nor does it provide results or conclusions of the research. It does incorporate key words found in the text and may include the purpose, methods, and scope of the research. Essentially, the descriptive abstract only describes the work being summarized. Some researchers consider it an outline of the work, rather than a summary. Descriptive abstracts are usually very short, words or less. Informative Abstract The majority of abstracts are informative.
While they still do not critique or evaluate a work, they do more than describe it. A good informative abstract acts as a surrogate for the work itself. That is, the researcher presents and explains all the main arguments and the important results and evidence in the paper.
An informative abstract includes the information that can be found in a descriptive abstract [purpose, methods, scope] but it also includes the results and conclusions of the research and the recommendations of the author.
The length varies according to discipline, but an informative abstract is usually no more than words in length. In that a highlight abstract cannot stand independent of its associated article, it is not a true abstract and, therefore, rarely used in academic writing. Writing Style. Use the active voice when possiblebut note that much of your abstract may require passive sentence constructions.
Regardless, write your abstract using concise, but complete, sentences.
Writing an Abstract for Your Research Paper
Get to the point quickly and always use the past tense because you are reporting on a study that has been completed. Abstracts should be formatted as a single paragraph in a block format and with no paragraph indentations.An abstract is a short summary of your published or unpublished research paper, usually about a paragraph c. A well-written abstract serves multiple purposes:. So what you include in your abstract and in your title are crucial for helping other researchers find your paper or article.
If you are writing an abstract for a course paper, your professor may give you specific guidelines for what to include and how to organize your abstract. Similarly, academic journals often have specific requirements for abstracts. Abstracts contain most of the following kinds of information in brief form. The body of your paper will, of course, develop and explain these ideas much more fully. As you will see in the samples below, the proportion of your abstract that you devote to each kind of information—and the sequence of that information—will vary, depending on the nature and genre of the paper that you are summarizing in your abstract.
And in some cases, some of this information is implied, rather than stated explicitly. The Publication Manual of the American Psychological Associationwhich is widely used in the social sciences, gives specific guidelines for what to include in the abstract for different kinds of papers—for empirical studies, literature reviews or meta-analyses, theoretical papers, methodological papers, and case studies.
And in an abstract, you usually do not cite references—most of your abstract will describe what you have studied in your research and what you have found and what you argue in your paper.
In the body of your paper, you will cite the specific literature that informs your research. What follows are some sample abstracts in published papers or articles, all written by faculty at UW-Madison who come from a variety of disciplines.
We have annotated these samples to help you see the work that these authors are doing within their abstracts. The social science sample Sample 1 below uses the present tense to describe general facts and interpretations that have been and are currently true, including the prevailing explanation for the social phenomenon under study. That abstract also uses the present tense to describe the methods, the findings, the arguments, and the implications of the findings from their new research study.
The authors use the past tense to describe previous research. The humanities sample Sample 2 below uses the past tense to describe completed events in the past the texts created in the pulp fiction industry in the s and 80s and uses the present tense to describe what is happening in those texts, to explain the significance or meaning of those texts, and to describe the arguments presented in the article. The science samples Samples 3 and 4 below use the past tense to describe what previous research studies have done and the research the authors have conducted, the methods they have followed, and what they have found.
In their rationale or justification for their research what remains to be donethey use the present tense. Gonalons-Pons, Pilar, and Christine R. Analyzing underground pulp fiction publications in Tanzania, this article makes an argument about the cultural significance of those publications. Emily Callaci. Reporting a new method for reprogramming adult mouse fibroblasts into induced cardiac progenitor cells.
Lalit, Pratik A. Salick, Daryl O. Nelson, Jayne M. Squirrell, Christina M. Shafer, Neel G. Patel, Imaan Saeed, Eric G.
Schmuck, Yogananda S. Markandeya, Rachel Wong, Martin R. Lea, Kevin W. Eliceiri, Timothy A. Hacker, Wendy C. Crone, Michael Kyba, Daniel J.Technically it is the lower bound of Wilson score confidence interval for a Bernoulli parameter. Read how it works in layman's terms here. For regression models, confidence is the upper end of a confidence interval around the expected error for that prediction.
The prediction goes through a number of states until its fully completed. Through the status field in the prediction you can determine when the prediction has been fully processed and ready to be used. Most of the times predictions are fully processed and the output returned in the first call.
These are the properties that a prediction's status has:To update a prediction, you need to PUT an object containing the fields that you want to update to the prediction' s base URL. Once you delete a prediction, it is permanently deleted. If you try to delete a prediction a second time, or a prediction that does not exist, you will receive a "404 not found" response. However, if you try to delete a prediction that is being used at the moment, then BigML.
To list all the predictions, you can use the prediction base URL. By default, only the 20 most recent predictions will be returned. You can get your list of predictions directly in your browser using your own username and API key with the following links. You can also paginate, filter, and order your predictions. When you create a new centroid, BigML. You can also list all of your centroids.
You can use curl to customize new centroids. Once a centroid has been successfully created it will have the following properties. Creating a centroid is a near real-time process that take just a few seconds depending on whether the corresponding cluster has been used recently and the workload of BigML's systems.
The centroid goes through a number of states until its fully completed. Through the status field in the centroid you can determine when the centroid has been fully processed and ready to be used.
Most of the times centroids are fully processed and the output returned in the first call. These are the properties that a centroid's status has:To update a centroid, you need to PUT an object containing the fields that you want to update to the centroid' s base URL.
Once you delete a centroid, it is permanently deleted. If you try to delete a centroid a second time, or a centroid that does not exist, you will receive a "404 not found" response.
However, if you try to delete a centroid that is being used at the moment, then BigML. To list all the centroids, you can use the centroid base URL. By default, only the 20 most recent centroids will be returned. You can get your list of centroids directly in your browser using your own username and API key with the following links.Ning Jizhe, Commissioner of the National Bureau of Statistics (NBS) of China, attended the 50th anniversary of the United Nations Industrial Development Organization (UNIDO) in Vienna, Austria.
Xie Fuzhan Met with FSO Delegation of Price Statistics Mr. Xie Fuzhan, Commissioner of National Bureau of Statistics, met with the delegation of price statistics headed by Ms. Irmtraud Beuerlein, Head of Division VA (Prices), Federal Statistical Office. There is no disputing the importance of statistical analysis in biological research, but too often it is considered only after an experiment is completed, when it may be too late.
This collection highlights important statistical issues that biologists should be aware of and provides practical advice to help them improve the rigor of their work.
Nature Methods' Points of Significance column on statistics explains many key statistical and experimental design concepts. Other resources include an online plotting tool and links to statistics guides from other publishers. This video is about an Introduction to Statistics. Peak at 60 and two gaps, one between 56 and 58 and the other between 62 and 64. The units would be seconds.
Introduction to Statistics (1. And, How Do I Know Which One to Choose.
Information on how to apply. New Course Starting Winter 2018, the Department of Statistics will be offering a new course: STAT 180 Introduction to Data Science Faculty Job Opening The Department of Statistics at the University of Washington is offering a full-time Tenure-Track Assistant (0116) or Tenured Associate (0102) Professor position. For application details go here.
New Courses University of Washington W Applications are invited for a full-time Tenure-Track Assistant or Associate Professor full-time, multi-year, 9-month service period appointment in the Department of Statistics at the University of Washington. Information on how to apply Faculty Position Open Applications are invited for a full-time tenure-track Assistant or Associate Professor position in the Department of Statistics at the University of Washington.
Starting Winter 2018, the Department of Statistics will be offering a new course: STAT 180 Introduction to Data Science Faculty Job Opening The Department of Statistics at the University of Washington is offering a full-time Tenure-Track Assistant (0116) or Tenured Associate (0102) Professor position.
Announcement content including relevant links. The content should not be more the three lines when displayed on site. Adrian Dobra and Nathalie Williams (Sociology) have received an NSF grant titled: ATD: Geospatial Graphical Models of Human Response to Emergencies. More information Tyler McCormick has been awarded an NSF grant titled: ATD: Collaborative Research: Algorithms and Data for High-Frequency, Real-Time Anomaly Detection. More information Daniela Witten has been awarded an NIH R01 grant titled: A Modeling Framework For Multi-View Data, With Applications To The Pioneer 100 Study And Protein Interaction Networks.
More information Sham Kakade (PI), Zaid Harchaoui, Dmitriy Drusvyatskiy (Math), Maryam Fazel (EE), and Yin Tat Lee (CSE) have been awarded an NSF grant titled: TRIPODS: Algorithms for Data Science: Complexity, Scalability, and Robustness. Three alumni of our department were named as IMS Fellows at the 2017 JSM in Baltimore: Moulinath Banerjee (University of Michigan), Florentina Bunea (Cornell University), Marloes Maathuis (ETH Zurich).
But the Earth is very likely to exceed that change, according to new University of Washington research. More information Fang Han has been awarded a three-year NSF DMS grant, entitled "An Integrated Toolkit for High-Dimensional Complex and Time Series Data Analysis".My final tips of the week will be in the betting without Spieth market.
The GM Tipster got ready for the Open Championship by picking the winner and three of the top 5 in the John Deere Classic last weekend. To have a look at how he is doing so far this season check out our golf betting tips homepage. Has a low round in him and not going to get better odds on him now. Is one under par and very much in the hunt. I am ecstatic that I can now get on him as I thought the opportunity had passed.
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It is worth remembering that Oscar De La Hoya, Ricky Hatton, Shane Mosley and Manny Pacquiao have all tried and failed to beat the former pound-for-pound number one so it is impossible to see a fighter who has never fought professionally in a boxing ring before having any chance against one of the greats of all time. If those odds are too short for you then you can turn to the method of victory market. It could simply be a matter of when, not if, Mayweather wins by knockout or technical knockout.
It is worth looking out for a number of specials on the fight that the bookmakers will be publishing in the run-up to the bout, some of which are already available.
We are still waiting on details of who will broadcast the fight in Ireland and the UK but it is sure to break box office records around the world as two sports collide in the clash of titans. Tags: Conor McGregorFloyd Mayweather Latest News Contact Us Schedule Features The 13th Round On This Day Lists Low Blows Opponent Watch Fighter Favourites Bookie Batterer Social Media Amateur News Videos Write for Us Wild Geese USA Britain Canada Navigation Latest News Contact Us Schedule Features The 13th Round On This Day Lists Low Blows Opponent Watch Fighter Favourites Bookie Batterer Social Media Amateur News Videos Write for Us Wild Geese USA Britain Canada googletag.And while in Grundafjordur we saw a parade of four colors with music and fun afterwards until 11:30 pm.
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